Citing Resources in GSA Style

The Geological Society of America is the citation style used by the Earth Sciences department here at Dickinson.

While the citation style guidelines of the GSA are not as detailed as those of many of the other citations guides it does have some specific details that are worth noting. The full details of its requirements on its online resource page at

Sample Citations
(All of the following samples are taken from the Geological Society of America online style guide)

Book with a Single Author:

(Note that first and middle initials are used for authors, only the first word of the title is capitalized, and that commas are used extensively)

Weaver, C.E., 1989, Clays, muds and shales:Amsterdam, Elsevier, Developments in Sedimentology, v. 44, 819 p.

Book with Two Authors:

Twiss, R.J., and Moores, E.M., 1992, Structural geology: New York, W. H. Freeman and Company, 532 p.

Scholarly Article:

Leigh, D.S., 1994, Roxana silt of the Upper Mississippi Valley: Lithology, source, and paleoenvironment: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 106, p. 430–442.


(Note that scale, series number and number of sheets all need to be included if available)

Abrams, G.A., 1993, Complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the State of Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-2236, scale 1:500 000, 1 sheet.

Ernst, W.G., 1993, Geology of the Pacheco Pass quadrangle, central California Coast Ranges: Geological Society of America Map and Chart Series MCH078, scale 1:24 000, 1 sheet, 12 p. text.

Proceedings from a conference or symposium:

Baar, C., 1972, Creep measured in deep potash mines vs. theoretical predictions, in Proceedings, Canadian Rock Mechanics Symposium, 7th, Edmonton: Ottawa, Canada Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, p. 23–77.

For more examples, look at a recent issue of Geology or the Bulletin of the Geologic Society of America (GSA) in order to see how the authors formated their citations.